This year marks the 100th Anniversary of when the United Farmers of Alberta (U.F.A.) formed the provincial government in 1921. That same year, they also won seats in the Federal general election. Today, the UFA is known for its iconic orange farm supply stores and petroleum agencies, but has an early history as an organization that aimed to represent and promote the political interests of farmers in the rural communities of Alberta. Notably, the U.F.A. governed from 1921 until 1935, showing the significance of farming culture and life in the province during this time. While in office, the U.F.A. aimed to promote the work of farmers, but were also marred by economic and policy challenges, including the Great Depression.
The United Farmer’s Historical Society has a wealth of archival materials to help commemorate this historic occasion. This virtual exhibit aims to highlight the records and photographs from its archives related to U.F.A.’s time in office.
The United Farmers of Alberta was founded in 1909, with local groups established in communities across the province to discuss issues relating to farmers and their families. By 1920, the U.F.A. along with the United Farm Women of Alberta (U.F.W.A.), were considered successful advocacy groups, with a combined membership at 30,000. Among their list of accomplishments, the U.F.A. pushed for the Canada Grain Act to protect farmers from unfair practices, as well as hail insurance, public ownership of utilities, women’s suffrage, prohibition, and improved rural healthcare and education. In addition, the U.F.A. brought greater recognition for co-operative associations and showed that farmers could effectively co-operate. The U.F.A. had worked with the provincial government up until this point to implement important reforms, but several issues were still unaddressed. Some of the farmer’s grievances included the high cost of equipment and running a farm, and the low return on investment for their products (Cook, p. 2). Farmers expressed their frustrations that they were being exploited despite the important work that they did in providing food for their communities. This discontent, compounded by the uncertainties coming out of the First World War and the “Spanish” Influenza, set the stage for farmers to consider pursuing political activity (Cook, p. 4).
The Non-Partisan League (NPL) was a growing movement in North America that appealed to farmers and aimed to politically engage with agrarian and labour organizations. The NPL arrived in Alberta in 1916 and utilized slogans such as “for the people, by the people” and “the only way farmers can control a government is by owning it…” (Hannan, p. 14). The NPL ran candidates in the 1917 provincial election with moderate success. Questions soon arose as to whether the U.F.A. should put their support behind the NPL or create their own political party. In 1919, the U.F.A. Annual Convention passed a resolution to allow its members to engage in political activity, both provincially and federally. With a U.F.A. political mandate established, the NPL ultimately agreed to be absorbed into the U.F.A., realizing that it had fulfilled its own mandate to politicize the farm movement (Hannan, p. 22).
U.F.A. President Henry Wise Wood was initially reluctant for the organization to enter politics, preferring instead to continue its primary role as an advocacy group to pressure whichever government was in charge. However, heading full on into politics was what the membership wanted and the next step was to establish political constituency associations, with U.F.A. members organizing in all corners of the province including Grande Prairie, Athabasca, Camrose, Red Deer, Didsbury, Lethbridge and Medicine Hat.
Conditions for Change
Farming in southern Alberta had become merciless, with drought, heat, and invasive pests and weeds leading to cycles of crop failures (Collins, p. 8-9). This, coupled with the discontent Albertans were feeling towards the province’s long standing Liberal government at their inability to improve economic and agrarian hardships, created the conditions for a change in government – one that put the needs of farmers first. In 1919, the U.F.A. put its first candidate up in the Cochrane constituency by-election and Alex Moore won the riding.
In January of 1921, Arthur Sifton, a former Alberta Premier and current federal cabinet minister, passed away leaving a vacant seat in parliament. A by-election was called to fill Sifton’s Medicine Hat riding, and the U.F.A. jumped at the chance to put up a federal candidate. Meanwhile, Alberta Premier Charles Stewart knew he was rapidly losing popularity and seeing the support that the U.F.A. was receiving, he called a snap election to try and catch them off guard (Tolton, p. 69). A provincial election was called for July 18, 1921, just days after the federal by-election where U.F.A. candidate Robert Gardiner won a seat that easily placed him in parliament. On the 18th, voters turned out in droves with a 42% increase from the previous election (Tolton, p. 69). Stewart’s plan had backfired and 38 U.F.A. candidates had won in their ridings, securing two-thirds of the 61 seats needed in the legislature (Tolton, p. 70). In a November 1921 edition of the Saskatoon Star, Henry Wise Wood was quoted:
This provincial election was sprung in order to take us by surprise. We had no political organization in the ordinary sense of the word. But we had something better…an intelligent citizenship…The result was that when the election was announced, the people organized themselves. Within ten days, every constituency in the province had formed its own organization.In Rennie, 2000, p. 183
U.F.A. Members Elect, July 1921 (UF 2004.0037.61). Note that neither Herbert Greenfield or John Brownlee are attending, indicating that the photo was taken before a Premier-elect was chosen.
United Farmers of Alberta members-elect in front of the Lougheed Building in Calgary, July 1921 (UF 2004.0037.62). Click the photo to see the names of the MLAs.
The U.F.A. entered politics without a detailed platform, but drew on their values and experience as a co-operative. Democracy was a central tenet to the U.F.A. as an organization and as a government, they promised to be directly accountable to their constituents (Rennie, p. 183). This was considered a refreshing break from the governments of the past, with Historian Bradford James Rennie stating that “farmers were sick of ‘partyism’ and the tactics of professional politicians” (2000, p. 184).
The U.F.A. had made their mark on Alberta, but despite the easy win, several problems became evident right away. Not a single member was elected in the two major regions of Calgary and Edmonton, calling into question the effectiveness of a government with rural only seats (Tolton, p. 70). Another major issue was that the party was still without a leader. With Henry Wise Wood’s staunch refusal to be involved in politics, the position was open for other names to be put forward and Herbert Greenfield was eventually chosen as the U.F.A.’s first Premier.
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Herbert Greenfield was originally from England, arriving in Canada in 1892, he and his family moved to the Westlock area in 1906 (Jones, p. 60). Greenfield became a farmer and was involved in his local community as a school trustee, founder of the Union of Alberta Municipalities and an elected member of the U.F.A. executive (Jones, p. 60). Upon being selected for the job, his response was: “I will do my best for the farmers and every class in the province of Alberta” (Tolton, p. 71; Calgary Herald, July 27, 1921). While Greenfield advocated tirelessly for U.F.A. candidates, he himself had not actually run in the election and was without a riding. MLA Donald MacBeth Kennedy resigned his seat in Peace River so that Greenfield could run unopposed in a by-election.
After Greenfield had been sworn in, he was immediately faced with major issues that needed to be dealt with including the drought in southern Alberta, a farm-debt crisis and a much-needed reformation of the grain-marketing system (Tolton, p. 79). Greenfield also took on additional roles, increasing his own workload by being the provincial Secretary, Treasurer and Minister of Municipal Affairs (Tolton, p. 79). When his wife, Elizabeth died in early 1922, Greenfield was profoundly affected. People noted that he had lost his personality, that the passionate and dynamic speaker he was known to be, had disappeared (Oake, p. 62).
When the U.F.A. entered office, the expectation was that of farmer representation, not power, but they quickly realized that their vision and values were out of step with the realities of the political realm (Cook, p. 8). The election win had taken the U.F.A. candidates by surprise, ushering in an inexperienced cabinet and leaving the party largely unprepared for their new role (Cook, p. 7-8). The U.F.A. inherited problems from the previous government, compounding issues related to revenue, aid and creditors (Tolton, p. 80). Under Greenfield, this resulted in tax hikes, as well as program cuts that the U.F.A. and U.F.W.A. had campaigned for in their pre-government days (Tolton, p. 80). In addition, there were settlers fleeing the drought stricken areas of southern Alberta to more urban centres, ongoing coal miner strikes, a black market of illicit liquor sales in the prohibition era, and escalating railway costs, all of which made for disgruntled citizens. However, the U.F.A. under Greenfield did manage to establish some significant reforms including passing drought and debt relief bills, extending credit to farmer-owned cooperatives, helping to establish the Alberta Wheat Pool in 1923 to get fair prices for grain, and putting an end to the losing battle of prohibition.
As the term went on, it became apparent that being Premier was not a good fit for Greenfield. He was known to be friendly and big-hearted, but just was not up to task for political life. He was criticized for his missteps both by the media and the opposition, but those closest to him remained supportive. Including John E. Brownlee, Ponoka MLA and the province’s Attorney-General, who stated “He was a big man with a fine personality. A habit of friendship easily expressed. He made friends wherever he went” (Jones, p. 71; Glenbow, p. 10). Herbert Greenfield governed from 1921 until his resignation in 1925, but despite these rough years, the U.F.A. government was easily reelected and John E. Brownlee assumed the role of Premier.
John E. Brownlee
John Edward Brownlee was a young lawyer from Ontario when he moved out West to Calgary with the hopes of opening a successful law firm (Oake, p. 76). Instead, Brownlee obtained employment with Muir, Jephson and Adams, the U.F.A.’s legal firm. From early on, he was involved with the formation of the Alberta Farmers’ Co-operative Elevator Company and the United Grain Growers, seeing first-hand the value in farmer-owned grain production, and it made him a household name among farmers (Foster, p. 80-81). During the U.F.A.’s first term in office, Brownlee was the Attorney-General, working alongside Herbert Greenfield and was instrumental in establishing the Alberta Wheat Pool (Foster, p. 83). When Greenfield resigned, Brownlee only agreed to take on the role with permission from the former premier. Greenfield accepted and Brownlee was sworn into office November 23, 1925.
Brownlee’s first strategy to get the government back on track was to increase its revenues. In January 1926, he set off to Ottawa to see Prime Minister Mackenzie King to negotiate the transfer of resource and land control to Alberta (Foster, p. 84). Brownlee had worked towards this goal for many years, going back to his days as Attorney-General when he proclaimed in 1922 that the natural resources question was one of the biggest problems in the province to date (The U.F.A., 1922, p. 1). Brownlee accomplished what no government before him had been able to do and a deal to transfer resource control to Alberta was finalized by 1929 (Glenbow, p. 48). In addition, he and the Minister of Railways, made a deal to purchase a majority stake in the Edmonton, Dunvegan & British Columbia railway, allowing the province to then negotiate the sale of it to Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway for millions (Foster, p. 85, 89). Under Brownlee, the U.F.A. government also announced a budget surplus of $188,019, the second largest in Alberta’s history at the time. With these early successes under him, the next provincial election was called during the summer of 1926. The U.F.A. gained even more votes than the 1921 election, winning 43 out of 61 seats, and Brownlee easily secured his premiership.
The front cover of The U.F.A. Vol. 5, no. 5 (Feb. 25, 1926) announcing the government’s budget surplus.
The Great Depression
Brownlee worked tirelessly to provide more financial stability for the province, but he was unable to avoid the Great Depression. The price of wheat had fallen from $1.78 the previous summer to below $1 a bushel in under a year and continued to slide downwards, putting the wheat pools in jeopardy (Foster, p. 92-93; Tolton, p. 102). The demand for Canadian wheat plummeted, countries around the world began to institute protectionist policies, Russia and Argentina flooded the market with their wheat, and banking and financial systems collapsed globally (Foster, p. 92). The urban centres of the province experienced high unemployment, farming folk moved to the cities in search of work, and people were burdened by debt, cut off from loans and at risk of home and farm foreclosures. The U.F.A. government was also approaching an election year, and Brownlee knew he needed the support of his government and the people to get through these tough economic times. An election was called for June 1930, and while the U.F.A. won enough seats to form government for the third time, they had less support than their previous campaigns, losing some of their rural ridings to other parties (Foster, p. 93).
Brownlee realized that the province’s troubles could only be fixed with substantial help from the federal government. He turned to the newly elected Prime Minister, and fellow Calgarian, R.B. Bennett for support. The federal government had been noticeably hands off regarding the depression so far, until the New York stock exchange declared it would no longer purchase Canadian securities, which prompted the federal treasury to be forced to refinance the provincial debt (Foster, p. 95). This became a worst case scenario for Brownlee who saw little choice but to drastically decrease expenses, including disbanding the Alberta Provincial Police, cutting government advertising, and even disconnecting the electric elevator in the Legislature building (Tolton, p. 106; Foster, p. 95). Brownlee was not in favour of instituting widespread government relief programs, but instead wanted to shield the government from financial ruin, prompting calls from citizens that the government was not doing enough for its people.
The Downfall of the U.F.A. Government
It appeared as if things could not get any worse for the U.F.A. government, but for Brownlee in particular, the worst was yet to come. On September 22, 1933, a civil suit was filed against Brownlee for seducing 18 year old Vivian MacMillan, a family friend and stenographer working for the provincial government. Brownlee, married to his wife Florence for 21 years, vehemently denied the accusation and pushed back against the claims that he had been leading a double life. But the rumours persisted and the damage was swift. Albertans did not want their Premier caught up in a sex scandal, and with the government’s popularity already on shaky ground from years of deep economic strife, John E. Brownlee resigned on July 10, 1934. Franklin L. Foster, who has written extensively about Brownlee’s life, notes that the controversy had the makings of a Liberal smear campaign all over it, as MacMillan’s lawyer reportedly had “a personal vendetta against Brownlee dating back to Brownlee’s term as Attorney General” (p. 101).
While Brownlee is often known for this scandal that caused both his, and the U.F.A.’s downfall, he fulfilled some of the U.F.A. governments most significant accomplishments, notably the transfer of mineral rights to the province which has continued to benefit Albertans almost a century later. He also sat on the Royal Commission on Banking and Currency to assess if Canada should have its own Central Bank, which formed the basis of what is now the Bank of Canada (Glenbow, p. 126; Tolton, p. 122). In addition, Brownlee jump started the creation of the provincial parks system, with the Provincial Parks and Protected Areas Act passed by the Alberta Legislature in 1930 (Alberta Parks, para. 6-7).
After Brownlee’s resignation, Richard Reid became leader of the U.F.A. Government and Alberta’s next Premier. Originally from Scotland, Reid moved to Canada and eventually settled near Mannville, Alberta. Upon attending the U.F.A. Battle River Federal Political Association in 1920, he was elected President and subsequently went on to win the provincial election of 1921 in Vegreville (Rennie, 2004, p. 108-109). Reid held numerous portfolios between 1921 and 1935 including Public Health, Municipal Affairs, Lands and Mines, and Treasurer. As Premier, he was known for his prudent cost-cutting measures. Reid identified that the publicly owned Alberta Government Telephones (AGT) was too expensive to maintain and encouraged hundreds of private, rural companies to purchase lines, easing the burden off of the government (Rennie, 2004, p. 112).
The Rise of Social Credit
With the U.F.A. government losing support and the Great Depression dragging on, the people of Alberta were more unsettled than ever. New ideas and theories were hotly discussed and debated among communities in an attempt to find answers to their suffering. Major C.H. Douglas was the founder of the social credit movement, and William Aberhart took his ideas to the masses by broadcasting them over his radio show “Back to the Bible Hour” (Tolton, p. 115, 119). Social credit was built on the “equalization of purchasing power” and reinvestment of profits to lower income citizens, which would control the price of goods and encourage people to buy more products (Tolton, p. 119). A significant draw for Aberhart’s social credit scheme was the promise of $25 a month for every adult in Alberta. “Bible Bill” as he was known, began to organize study groups and the fervour of social credit spread across the province. Aberhart approached both Brownlee and Reid with his theory, but they were critical, stating that it would be too costly to sustain. However, the idea of social credit during the worst of the depression on the prairies was very enticing to farmers. The U.F.A. organization was receiving considerable interest and questions about social credit theory from its members. At the 1935 Annual Convention, Aberhart addressed the audience, hoping to sway U.F.A. support for social credit (U.F.A., 1935, p. 120).
A proposal was then put forward to delegates to vote on whether the U.F.A. should adopt the policies of Aberhart’s brand of social credit, but in the end, only 30 out of 400 U.F.A. members and 3 out of 90 U.F.W.A. members were in favour (Rennie, 2004, p. 115; U.F.A., 1935, p. 122). After this, Aberhart launched his own political movement, a direct threat against the U.F.A. government, and revenge on those who had rebuffed him. While Reid did his best to discredit Aberhart, exposing the tax hikes that would be needed to pay for a social credit system, Aberhart remained popular and an election was called for August 22, 1935. Reid’s platform was built on reminding voters about the U.F.A. government’s record of fiscal responsibility, road-building initiatives and low taxes, while promoting the opportunities that oil development would bring the province (Rennie, 2004, p. 118). Reid did countless speaking tours, reaching out to everyone he could, but it still was not enough. The election saw no U.F.A. candidates elected, and Reid was ousted from his own riding. William Aberhart succeeded as Premier from 1935 until his death in 1943 and the Alberta Social Credit Party remained in power until 1971.
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The front page of a political pamphlet written by Norman F. Priestley. The contents outline the U.F.A. government & movement’s accomplishments between 1909-1935 including organizing 1,200 U.F.A. Locals, selling the northern railways, taking control of natural resources, extending highways, implementing an equalization system for rural schools, advancing public health, and passing the Debt Adjustment legislation and the Agricultural Industry Stabilization Act to protect the farming industry from liquidation (UF 2002.0029.02).
The U.F.A. governed from 1921 to 1935, and this period proved to be a tumultuous time to be in government. Decades later in an oral history interview, just prior to his death, John E. Brownlee stated “unquestionably the greatest single strain upon the U.F.A. government during its term of office developed from the problems arising out of the great depression” (Glenbow, p. 89). He went on to say that “it must be remembered that the last election  was fought under the worst conditions that Canada’s had in a hundred years. The farmers were just simply desperate. There can’t be any doubt at all that an awful lot of the U.F.A. membership throughout the province had changed and supported Aberhart” (Glenbow, p. 110). Undoubtedly, the U.F.A. government saw its fair share of turmoil, largely out of its control which included managing the impacts of the “Spanish” Flu and First World War, as well as years of economic and agricultural hardship culminating in the Great Depression.
When reflecting on the U.F.A.’s time in politics, former Director and Central Co-op Manager Norman Priestley noted that “the farm organization had suffered a terrible blow none would deny; but it was not fatal. It gives us a chance to start again” (p. 116-117). Priestley drew attention to the fact that the U.F.A. was already well established in rural communities, decades long relationships remained with members of the Wheat Pool and United Grain Growers, and people were not going to discard years of joint action and agricultural progress over political differences (p. 117).
Years later at the 1939 U.F.A. Annual Convention, Resolution No. 49 was put forward stating:
…be it resolved that the Board of the U.F.A. recommend to this convention that we cease all our direct political activity and further, that no individual, local or association be allowed in any circumstances [whatsoever] to use any part of the U.F.A. machinery to endorse or promote the interests of a political party or movement.Minutes of the Thirty-First Annual Convention, 1939, p. 15
The decision to never enter politics again was passed by a large majority and the resolution has stood to this day.
While the UFA may look different today, the organization’s early origins as a political movement mark a pivotal point in Alberta’s history. The U.F.A. government, like the organization, was originally founded on giving a voice to farmers. Many of the same principles remain, such as advocating for farmers’ interests and highlighting the value that they bring to their communities, province and country. Looking back a century ago, we remember the successes and failures of what was a significant agrarian entrance into politics on this 100th anniversary of the U.F.A. government.
1. Samuel Brown [ca. 1921-1930], MLA for High River (UF 2005.0044.11)
2. John C. Buckley [ca. 1921-1930], MLA for Gleichen (UF 2005.0044.12)
3. George Hoadley [ca. 1920-1935] MLA for Okotoks (UF 2003.0090.0017)
4. Lorne Proudfoot [ca.1920-1929], MLA for Acadia (UF 2003.0090.0020)
5. O.L. McPherson [ca.1920-1927}, MLA for Little Bow (UF 2003.0090.0025)
6. John Russell Love [ca. 1921-1935], MLA for Wainwright (UF 2005.0044.59)
References and Further Reading:
Alberta Parks. (2021). Our History. Retrieved June 18, 2021, from https://www.albertaparks.ca/albertaparksca/about-us/our-history/
Ball, N. (2013, September 13). United Farmers of Alberta (UFA). Retrieved June 18, 2021, from http://eugenicsarchive.ca/discover/tree/5233a2305c2ec50000000058
Collins, Robert. (1996). “The rain, where is the rain, is the South’s desperate cry” In Alberta in the 20th Century: Brownlee and the Triumph of Populism 1920 – 1930, Vol. 5. Ted Byfield, ed. Edmonton, AB: United Western Communications Ltd., p. 4-35.
Cook, R.J.E. (1985). The UFA Experiment 1920-35. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Woodsworth House Association.
Foster, Franklin L. (2004). “John E. Brownlee” In Alberta Premiers of the Twentieth Century. Bradford J. Rennie, ed. Regina: SK: Canadian Plains Research Centre, University of Regina, p. 77-105.
Glenbow Library and Archives. (1961). United Farmers of Alberta Oral History Project John E. Brownlee M-4079. Calgary: University of Calgary. Retrieved from https://glenbow.ucalgary.ca/finding-aid/united-farmers-of-alberta-oral-history-project/
Ginger Group. (2015). In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/ginger-group
Hannan, K. (2004). “The Non-Partisan League in Alberta and North Dakota: A Comparison” in Alberta History, Vol. 52, No. 1. Calgary: Historical Society of Alberta, p. 13-23.
Jones, David C. (2004). “Herbert Greenfield” In Alberta Premiers of the Twentieth Century. Bradford J. Rennie, ed. Regina: SK: Canadian Plains Research Centre, University of Regina, p. 59-76.
Kersten, L. (n.d.). Alberta passes Sexual Sterilization Act. Retrieved from http://eugenicsarchive.ca/database/documents/5172e81ceed5c6000000001d
Macpherson, I. (2015). United Farmers of Alberta In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/united-farmers-of-alberta
Marsh, J. (2015). “Eugenics: Pseudo-Science Based on Crude Misconceptions of Heredity” In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/eugenics-keeping-canada-sane-feature
McNaughton, Violet. (c.1921). “Women and the New Political Group”. Fonds 2, Series 5, File 1. In custody of the United Farmer’s Historical Society.
Monto, Tom. (1989). The United Farmers of Alberta – a Movement, a government. Edmonton, AB: Crang Publishing.
Morley, J. (2021). Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/co-operative-commonwealth-federation
Oake, George. (1996). “With neither policy nor leader the Farmers take over Alberta” In Alberta in the 20th Century: Brownlee and the Triumph of Populism 1920 – 1930, Vol. 5. Ted Byfield, ed. Edmonton, AB: United Western Communications Ltd., p. 54-97.
Priestley, Norman F. (1935). Has the Organized Farmers’ Movement in Alberta Justified Its Existence? United Farmers of Alberta. Fonds 1, Series 5, File 5. In custody of the United Farmer’s Historical Society.
Priestley, Norman F. and Edward B. Swindlehurst. (1967). Furrows, Faith and Fellowship: The History of the Farm Movement in Alberta 1905 – 1966. Edmonton: Co-op Press Limited.
Rennie, Bradford J. (2004). “Richard Reid” In Alberta Premiers of the Twentieth Century. Bradford J. Rennie, ed. Regina: SK: Canadian Plains Research Centre, University of Regina, p. 105-122.
Rennie, B. J. (2000). The rise of Agrarian democracy: The United Farmers and Farm Women of Alberta, 1909-1921. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
Rycroft, Jean D. and David W. Leonard. (1996). The Electoral History of the Peace River Country of Alberta 1905 – 1993. Grande Prairie: Menzies Printers.
Silverman, E., & McLeod, S. (2020). Louise McKinney In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/louise-mckinney
Tolton, G. (2009). Deep Roots. Promising Future. Calgary: UFA. Retrieved from https://archives.ufa.com/viewer/deep-roots-promising-future?p=12&type=static
United Farmers of Alberta. (1935). Convention minutes 1933-1935. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/ufaconventionmin3335ufoa
United Farmers of Alberta. (1939). Minutes of the Thirty-First Annual Convention. Fonds 1, Series 2, File 64. In custody of the United Farmer’s Historical Society.
United Farmers of Alberta. (1921). The U.F.A. What It Is, What It Has Done, What It Aims To Do. Fonds 1, Series 5, File 3 (UF 2002.0013.05). In custody of the United Farmer’s Historical Society.
United Farmers of Alberta (U.F.A.) 1909 – 1948, Fonds 1. In custody of the United Farmer’s Historical Society.
The U.F.A. (October 1, 1922). United Farmers of Alberta, Vol. 1, no. 15. Retrieved from https://archives.ufa.com/permalink/theufav1n15ufoa-1
The U.F.A. (February 25, 1926). United Farmers of Alberta, Vol. 5, no. 5. Retrieved from https://archives.ufa.com/permalink/theufav5n5ufoa-1
United Farm Women of Alberta. (1937). Official Minutes U.F.W.A. Executive, Board & Convention 1934-1937. Retrieved from https://archives.ufa.com/permalink/theufwa2119ufoa-1